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Scientific Evidence

Some of the scientific evidence of the harmful effects on health of negative emotions and positive outcomes of interventions to counter these effects:

1. Williams, R.B., Barefoot, J.C., Califf, R.M., Haney, T.L., Saunders, W.B., Pryor, D.B., Hlatky, M.A., Siegler, I.C., & Mark, D.B. Prognostic importance of social and economic resources among medically treated patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, 267: 520-524, 1992.

2. Williams, R.B., Barefoot, J.C., Blumenthal, J.A., Helms, M.J., Luecken, L., Pieper, C.F., Siegler, I.C., & Suarez, E.C. Psychosocial correlates of job strain in a sample of working women. ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY, 54: 543-548, 1997.

3. Williams, R.B. Lower socioeconomic status and increased mortality. Early childhood roots and the potential for successful interventions. JAMA, 279: 1745-1746, 1998.

4. Williams, R.B., Barefoot, J.C., & Schneiderman, N. (2003). Psychosocial risk factors for cardiovascular disease. More than one culprit at work. JAMA, 290:2190-2192.

5. Anda, R., Williamson, D., Jones, D., Macera, C., Eaker, E., Glassman, A., & Marks, J. (1993). Depressed affect, hopelessness, and the risk of ischemic heart disease in a cohort of U.S. adults. Epidemiology 4:285-294.

6. Barefoot, J.C., Dahlstrom, W.G., & Williams, R.B. (1983). Hostility, CHD incidence, and total mortality: A 25-year follow-up study of 255 physicians. Psychosomatic Medicine 45:59-63.

7. Bishop G.D., Kaur D., Tan V.L.M, Chua Y-L, Liew S-M, and Mak K-H (2000). Psychosocial skills training reduces stress reactivity, resting heart rate and psychosocial risk in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Circulation 106:699.

8. Bishop, G.D., Ph.D., Kaur, D., Tan, V.L.M. and Chua, Y-L. Effects of a Psychosocial Skills Training Workshop on Psychophysiological and Psychosocial Risk in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (2004) American Heart Journal (In press).

9. Fawzy, F.I, Fawzy, N.W., Hyun, C.S., Elashoff R., Guthrie, D., Fahey, J.L., & Morton D.L. (1993). Malignant Melanoma: Effects of an early structured psychiatric intervention, coping, and affective state on recurrence and survival 6 years later. Archives of General Psychiatry 50:681-689.

10. Frasure-Smith, N., Lesperance, F., & Talajic, M. (1994). Post-myocardial infarction, depression and 18-month prognosis. Circulation 90:I614.

11. Gidron, Y., Davidson, K., & Bata I. (1999). The short-term effects of a hostility-reduction intervention in CHD patients. Health Psychology 18:416-420.

12. Rosengren, Annika et al. (2004) Association of psychosocial risk factors with risk of acute myocardial infarction in 11,119 cases and 13,648 controls from 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet. 364: 953-962.

13. Sloan, R.P., Shapiro, P.A., Bigger, J.T. Jr., Bagiella, E., Steinman, R.C., & Gorman, J.M. (1994). Cardiovascular autonomic control and hostility in healthy subject. American Journal of Cardiology 74:298-300.

14. Smith, T.W., & Allred, K.D. (1989). Blood pressure reactivity during social interaction in high and low cynical hostile men. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 11:135-143.

15. Suarez, E.C., Kuhn, C.M., Shanberg, S.M., Williams, R.B., & Zimmermann, E.A. (1998). Neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and emotional responses of hostile men: The role of interpersonal challenge. Psychosomatic Medicine 60:78:88.